Peer-Reviewed Research Articles

Refereed Book Chapters

  • “Political Legitimacy in Malaysia: Regime Performance in the Asian Context”, in Lynn White (ed), Legitimacy: Ambiguities of Political Success or Failure in East and Southeast Asia (World Scientific 2005)
  • “Legitimacy”, in International Encyclopedia of Political Science (American Political Science Association 2010)

Policy Articles

PowerPoint Presentations

Public Service

  • In 2014, I took part in a 2-day review panel to generate recommendations for the Department of Defense's Institute for Military Support to Governance
  • I have advised agencies of the U.S. government on issues of legitimacy in the context of state-rebuilding in Afghanistan, Sudan, and Iraq.









Henri Rousseau's The Centenary of Independence was painted in 1892 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the first French Republic. The people dance around symbols of liberty and republican values while state representatives look on. It is an early representation of the legitimacy of the modern state.